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Medicolegal Aspects of Marijuana: Michigan Edition PDF eBook

Medicolegal Aspects of Marijuana: Michigan Edition PDF eBook

$ 99.00

Edited by:  Bernard A. Jocuns & Jay M. Tiftickjian
    •    ISBN 10: 1-936360-57-8
    •    ISBN 13:  978-1-936360-57-4
    •    Copyright Date Ed:  May 9, 2019 
    •    PDF eBook

Medicolegal Aspects of Marijuana: Michigan Edition is the hands-down indispensable textbook for attorneys, judges, legislators, and individuals involved in the business of medical and recreational cannabis.

The burgeoning field of marijuana-related litigation in Michigan touches many areas of law, from criminal prosecution, to motor vehicle accidents, to real estate transactions, to business regulation, and to taxation issues. The medicolegal aspects of marijuana are complex topics because so many different components are present in marijuana-related criminal, civil, and administrative litigation.

Forensic marijuana analysis is a new area for most attorneys. It is extremely important that THC analyses be preformed accurately and correctly and that the results are properly interpreted. Often, results are deemed meaningless because samples are mishandled, equipment is incorrectly calibrated, or results are incorrectly reported.

The wealth of information presented in this book makes it an invaluable resource when investigating and litigating cases involving marijuana.

Preface................. ix
Chapter 1: A Brief Introduction To Recreational And Adult-Use Marihuana In Michigan And Other States; Progress At The Federal Level................. 1
Bernard A. Jocuns, Esq.
1.1 Introduction To Michigan Marihuana...... 1
1.2 Federal Treatment Of Marihuana...... 2
A. The Trump Administration And Marihuana. 2
B. A Short History Of Federal Decriminalization Efforts. 3
1.3 A Short Synopsis Of Legalization Of Medical And Recreational Marihuana In Other States...... 3
1.4 Adult-Use Marihuana Real Estate Issues...... 4
Chapter 2: Introduction & Brief History of Marihuana Legislation in Michigan, Including Current Law................. 5
Bernard A. Jocuns, Esq,
2.1 Michigan Marihuana Ordinances At The City Level ...... 5
2.2 John Sinclair ...... 5
2.3 The Michigan Medical Marihuana Act—the MMMA  
A. Sections 4 and 8 Of The Michigan Medical Marihuana Act . 7
2.4 Post MMMA Michigan Medical Marihuana Legislation: Adult Use Marihuana Taxation And Regulation ...... 8
2.5 Introduction to MRTMA ...... 9
2.6 General Theme of MRTMA ...... 9
2.7 Licensing Scheme Under MRTMA ...... 9
2.8 Allowable Possession Amounts Under the MRTMA ...... 9
2.9 Possession Limits Under the MMMA ...... 9
2.10 Provisioning Centers ...... 10
2.11 MRTMA Does Not Require Qualifying Debilitating Medical Conditions ...... 10
2.12 The Consumption of Marihuana ...... 10
2.13 OUID—Driving While Under The Influence of Marihuana ...... 10
2.14 The Transportation of Marihuana ...... 10
2.15 The Exportation of Marijuana ...... 11
2.16 The Cultivation of Marihuana ...... 11
2.17 Conclusion ...... 11
 
Chapter 3: Michigan Regulation And Taxation Of Adult Use Marihuana—The MRTMA Act................. 13
Bernard A. Jocuns, Esq,
3.0 Introduction ...... 13
3.00 Preamble ...... 13
3.1 Section One: Enabling Legislation ...... 13
3.2 Section Two: Purpose of MRTMA ...... 13
3.3 Section Three: MRTMA Definitions ...... 14
3.4 Section 4: Prohibited Conduct ...... 15
3.5 Section 5: Protections ...... 15
A. Subsection 5.1—Personal Protections . 15
B. Subsection 5.2—Protections Re: Marihuana Accessories . 16
C. Subsection 5.3—Protections Re: Custody of Minor Children . 16
3.6 Section 6—Municipalities and Marihuana Establishments ...... 16
3.7 Section 7—Administrative ...... 16
3.8 Section 8—Administrative ...... 17
3.9 Section 9—Licenses ...... 18
3.10 Section 10—Protection For Marihuana Establishments ...... 19
3.11 Section 11—Business Practices For Marihuana Establishments ...... 20
3.12 Section 12—State Tax Deductions ...... 20
3.13 Section 13—Taxation ...... 20
3.14 Section 14—Revenue Benefits ...... 21
3.15 Section 15—Punishment ...... 21
A. Subsection 1—Civil Infraction . 21
B. Subsection 2—Penalties: Double Permitted Amount Sales . 22
C. Subsection 3—Punishments For Minors . 22
D. Subsection 4—Penalties: More Than Double Permitted Amount Sales . 22
3.16 Section 16—Promulgation Of Rules—Or Not ...... 22
3.17 Section 17—Construction Of Act ...... 23
Chapter 4: Michigan Marihuana Facilities And Licensing—The MMFLA Act................. 25
Bernard A. Jocuns, Esq,
4.0 Introduction and Preamble ...... 25
4.1.02 Section 102: Definitions ...... 25
4.2.01 Section 201: Prohibited Activities ...... 27
4.2.03 Section 203—Protection From Criminal Prosecution ...... 28
4.2.04 Section 204—MMMA Medical Purpose Defense Intact ...... 29
4.2.05 Section 205—Municipal Ordinance Required, $5,000 License Fee ...... 29
4.2.06 Section 206—THC Content Limits, Minor Enticing Marketing Restrictions ...... 29
4.2.07 Section 207—Inventory Control and Tracking System ...... 30
4.2.08 Section 208—Police “Examination” Of Marihuana Facilities ...... 31
4.3.01 Section 301—Medical Marihuana Licensing Board—Duties And Responsibilities ...... 31
4.3.02 Section 302—Medical Marihuana Licensing Board—Functions And Powers ...... 32
4.3.03 Section 303—Medical Marihuana Licensing Board—Powers of the Board ...... 33
4.3.05 Section 305—Restrictions Against Self-Dealing By Medical Marihuana Licensing Board Members ...... 34
4.4.01 Section 401—Licenses For Class A, B, Or C Growers, Processors, Provisioning Centers, Secure Transporters And Safety Compliance Facilities ...... 36
4.4.03 Section 403—Correction Of Application Deficiencies ...... 39
4.4.04 Section 404—Application Only In Name Of True Party In Interest ...... 40
4.4.05 Section 405—Employees of Licensee With Substance Abuse Charges ...... 40
4.4.06 Section 406—Transfer, Sale Or Purchase Of License ...... 40
4.4.07 Section 407—Denial, Suspension, Revocation Or Restriction Of License ...... 40
4.4.08 Section 408—Proof Of Financial Responsibility ...... 41
4.4.09 Section 409—License As A Revocable Privilege ...... 41
4.5.01 Section 501—Grower License ...... 41
4.5.02 Section 502—Processor License ...... 42
4.5.03 Section 503—Secure Transporter Licenses ...... 42
4.5.04 Section 504—Provisioning Center Licenses ...... 43
4.5.05 Section 505—Safety Compliance Facility License ...... 43
4.6.01 Section 601—Taxation and Administration Of Provisioning Centers ...... 44
4.6.02 Section 602—Medical Marihuana Excise Fund ...... 44
4.6.03 Section 603—Regulatory Assessment ...... 44
4.6.04 Section 604—Marihuana Regulatory Fund ...... 45
4.6.05 Section 605—Use Of The Marihuana Fund Registry Money ...... 45
4.7.01 Section 701—Financial Statements ...... 45
4.7.02 Section 702—Report ...... 45
4.8.01 Section 801—Marihuana Advisory Panel ...... 46
Chapter 5: The Michigan Marihuana Tracking Act—The MTA Act................. 47
Bernard A. Jocuns, Esq,
5.0 Introduction and Preamble ...... 47
5.9.01 Section 901—Short Title ...... 47
5.9.02 Section 902—Definitions ...... 47
5.9.03 Section 903—Statewide Monitoring And Tracking System ...... 48
5.9.04 Section 4—Confidentiality ...... 48
Chapter 6: Michigan Marijuana Criminal Law and Penalties................. 49
Daniel W. Grow
6.1 Introduction ...... 49
A. Marihuana and the Public Health Code . 49
B. Michigan Medical Marihuana Act . 49
6.2 Medical Marihuana, Judicial Interpretation of the Act ...... ......................................................................................51
A. Section 4 Immunity Defense . 52
B. Section 8 Affirmative Defense . 53
C. Motor Vehicles and Medical Marihuana . 54
6.3 General Sentencing Scheme for Marijuana Law Violations ...... 54
A. Felony Offenses . 55
B. Misdemeanors and High Court Misdemeanor . 55
C. Sentencing Enhancements, Lockridge, Diversions, HYTA and 7411 . 56
Chapter 7: Federal Controlled Substances Laws and Marijuana................. 57
Andres R. Guevara, Esq.
7.1 Introduction ...... 57
7.2 The Reach Of Federal Jurisdiction—the Long Arm Of The Law ...... 57
A. The CSA and Marijuana Enforcement . 57
B. The Power of the Commerce Clause . 58
C. Supremacy and Preemption . 59
D. How Colorado Marijuana Laws Survive Preemption . 60
7.3 Federal Marijuana Sentences/Charges ...... 61
A. Federal Sentencing Generally . 61
B. Marijuana Sentences and Charges Under the Federal System . 62
7.4 Federal Marijuana Reform and Trends ...... 62
Endnotes ...... 63
Chapter 8: Driving Under the Influence: An Overview of Michigan’s Marijuana-Related Driving Offenses ................. 65
Mary Chartier, Esq.
8.1 Introduction ...... 65
8.2 Michigan’s OWI and Impaired Driving Statute ...... 65
8.3 Operating a Motor Vehicle When Death or Serious Impairment Results ...... 66
8.4 Operating a Motor Vehicle With a Child in the Vehicle ...... 66
8.5 Michigan’s Zero Tolerance Per Se Statute ...... 67
8.6 Punishment Provisions ...... 67
8.7 Enhanced Sentencing ...... 69
8.8 Plea Restrictions ...... 69
8.9 Proving Prior Convictions ...... 69
8.10 Jury Verdict Forms ...... 69
8.11 Court Reporting Requirements ...... 70
8.12 Ignition Interlock Statutory Provision ...... 70
8.13 Statutory Definitions ...... 70
8.14 Defining “Operating” ...... 71
8.15 Assessing Whether a Place is Open to the General Public or Generally Accessible to Motor Vehicles ...... 71
8.16 Metabolites Are Not a Controlled Substance ...... 71
8.17 Driving and the Michigan Medical Marihuana Act ...... 72
8.18. Testing Challenges ...... 73
8.19 License Sanctions for Marijuana Offenses ...... 73
8.20 The Drug Recognition Evaluation ...... 73
8.21 Forensic Chemical Testing ...... 74
8.22 Other Resources ...... 74
8.23 Conclusion ...... 76
Chapter 9: Laboratory Testing Overview of THC ................. 77
Jeremy Brehmer, Esq.
9.1 Introduction ...... 77
A. Forensic Toxicology . 77
9.2 Marijuana Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics of THC .....78
9.3 Urine Sample Collection ...... 78
A. Sample Handling . 79
B. Transport/Storage . 79
9.4 Blood Collection ...... 80
A. Blood Transportation . 82
9.5 The Laboratory ...... 82
A. Quality Control/Quality Assurance . 82
B. Analysts (Training/Proficiency) . 83
9.6 The Analysis: Methods ...... 83
A. Screening/Presumptive . 83
B. Immunoassay . 84
C. Solid Dose Screening Tests . 86
D. Thin Layer Chromatography Screening Test . 86
E. Modified Duquenois-Levine Color Screening Test . 86
9.7 Confirmatory Testing for THC ...... 87
A. Urine . 87
B. Confirmatory Analysis of THC-COOH by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry Detection . 87
9.8 Method Validation—Limits of Detection and Quantification ...... 87
A. Valid Method for Qualification and Quantification Required before Reporting . 87
9.9 Is There a Correlation Between ng/mL of THC and Impairment? ...... 90
9.10 Quantitative Analysis in Whole Blood Serum and Plasma ...... 90
A. Gas Chromatography . 90
B. Mass Spectrometry . 90
C. Electronic Ionization . 90
D. Mass Analyzers . 91
9.11 Detecting and Identifying THC ...... 92
9.12 Conclusion ...... 94
Endnotes ...... 94
Chapter 10: Are THC Concentrations Appropriate For
Presuming Psychomotor Impairment? ................. 
97
Paul Armentano
10.1 Overview ...... 97
10.2 Michigan’s Zero Tolerance Vehicle Operation Statute Has Been Overruled by People v. Koon ...... 97
10.3 Are THC Concentrations Accurate Predictors of Cannabis-Induced Impairment? ...... 98
10.4 Why Are Presumptive THC Limits Inadvisable for Cannabinoids? ...... 98
10.5 Experienced Cannabis Consumers Exhibit Tolerance to the Drug’s Effects ...... 99
10.6 Cannabis’ Influence on Psychomotor Performance is Short-Lived ...... 99
10.7 THC/Blood Collection Seldom Occurs in a Timely Manner ...... 100
10.8 Conclusion ...... 100
10.9 DoT HS 812 072 ...... 103
10.10 DoT HS 812 117 ...... 106
Endnotes ...... 100
Chapter 11: Marijuana as a Federal Controlled Substance  ................. 117
Jacey L. Liu, Esq.
11.1 Introduction ...... 117
11.2 Federal Power, Prohibition, and Penalty ...... 117
11.3 Exemptions and Defenses ...... 118
11.4 Enforcement Guidelines and Prosecutorial
Discretion  ...... 118
11.5 The Rohrabacher–Farr Amendment ...... 120
Endnotes ...... 121
Chapter 12: Under the Influence of Marijuana ................. 123
John P. Bederka, Jr., Ph.D. and Warren Cooper
12.1 Under the Influence: After Smoking ...... 123
A. Introductory Summary . 123
B. Questions in Search of Answers . 123
C. Scientific Data Relating to THC . 124
1. Blood THC v. brain THC: any
relationships? ........ 124
2. Relationships between percent plant-THC and plasma-THC ........ 124
3. Relation between degree of “High” and plasma THC ........ 125
4. Occasional marijuana users v. practiced  users ........ 125
5. Is THC the only psycho-active
cannabinoid? ........ 126
6. Urine testing for cannabinoids: clinical or evidentiary value? ........ 127
7. Impairment & marijuana: laboratory and on-road data ........ 127
D. Conclusions . 128
12.2 Under the Influence: After Ingestion ...... 129
A. Introductory Summary . 129
B. Some Comparative Data On Smoking And Ingesting Cannabis : . 129
1. How do bioavailability measures relate to Ingestion? ........ 131
2. Is Dronabinol administration a good model for cannabis Ingestion? ........ 133
3. Any overall advantages of the oromucosal route? ........ 134
4. Can the effects after ingestion of cannabis be made more objective? ........ 135
C. Conclusions . 136
Endnotes ...... 136
Chapter 13: Pharmacology of Marijuana ................. 141
James T. O’Donnell PharmD, MS, FCP, ABCP, FACN and James J. O’Donnell III MS, PhD
13.1 Introduction ...... 141
A. Source of Marijuana and Active Cannabinoid Compounds . 141
B. Kinetics . 141
C. Dynamics—Site of Action; Cellular Receptors for THC . 142
13.2 Current Use of Prescription Cannabinoids ...... 142
A. Food and Drug Administration Approved Cannabinoid Use . 142
B. Commercial Prescription Cannabinoid . 142
C. Package Insert Warnings . 142
D. Widespread Uses for Medical Conditions . 142
13.3 Marijuana Research ...... 143
A. Clinical Trials Primer . 143
1. Design ........ 143
2. Double blinding ........ 143
3. Limitations of clinical research ........ 143
13.4 Therapeutic/Medical Use of Marijuana ...... 143
A. Antiemetic and Appetite Stimulant . 143
B. Decrease in Opiate Craving and Drug Abuse Potential . 144
13.5 Marijuana Toxicities and Risks ...... 144
A. Physical Effects . 144
1. Eyes and heart ........ 144
2. Lung effects ........ 144
3. Blood pressure and heart disease ........ 145
4. Immune system ........ 145
B. Tolerance and Physical Dependence—Acute and Chronic Intoxication: . 145
1. Effects on behavior ........ 145
2. Effect of route of administration ........ 145
3. Amotivational syndrome—loss of interest ........ 145
4. Duration of effects ........ 146
5. Complex behavioral changes ........ 146
C. Cognitive Deficiencies: Intoxication and Impairment—Temporary or Permanent? . 146
1. Age of onset of use ........ 146
2. Attention tasks ........ 146
3. Reversibility of cognitive impairment? ........ 147
4. Receptor downregulation—tolerance ........ 147
5. Withdrawal ........ 148
D. Marijuana Abuse and Treatment . 148
13.6 States Which Have Approved Use of Medical Marijuana for Specific Qualifying Medical
Conditions:...... 148
13.7 Conclusion ...... 148
Endnotes ...... 149
Appendix A: Relevant Michigan Statutes  ................. 151
About the Contributors................. 169
Index ................. 173


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