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Medicolegal Aspects of Marijuana: Colorado Edition - Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company, Inc.

Medicolegal Aspects of Marijuana: Colorado Edition

$ 99.00

    •    Edited by: Jay M. Tiftickjian
    •    ISBN 10: 1-936360-30-6
    •    ISBN 13: 978-1-936360-30-7
    •    Copyright Date Ed:  March 16, 2015
    •    Binding Information: Casebound
    •    Size: 8.5 ✕ 11 Inches (US)

Medicolegal Aspects of Marijuana: Colorado Edition is the hands-down indispensable textbook for attorneys, judges, legislators, and individuals involved in the business of medical and recreational cannabis.

The burgeoning field of marijuana-related litigation in Colorado touches many areas of law, from criminal prosecution, to motor vehicle accidents, to real estate transactions, to business regulation, and to taxation issues. The medicolegal aspects of marijuana are complex topics because so many different components are present in marijuana-related criminal, civil, and administrative litigation.

Forensic marijuana analysis is a new area for most attorneys. It is extremely important that THC analyses be preformed accurately and correctly and that the results are properly interpreted. Often, results are deemed meaningless because samples are mishandled, equipment is incorrectly calibrated, or results are incorrectly reported.

The wealth of information presented in this book makes it an invaluable resource when investigating and litigating cases involving marijuana.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1: A Brief History of Marijuana Legislation in Colorado
Jay M. Tiftickjian, Esq.
1.1 A Brief History of Marijuana Legislation in Colorado

Chapter 2: Pharmacology of Marijuana
James T. O’Donnell PharmD, MS, FCP, ABCP, FACN and James J. O’Donnell III MS, PhD
2.1 Introduction
A. Source of Marijuana and Active Cannabinoid Compounds
B. Kinetics
C. Dynamics—Site of Action; Cellular Receptors for THC
2.2 Current Use of Prescription Cannabinoids
A. Food and Drug Administration Approved Cannabinoid Use
B. Commercial Prescription Cannabinoid
C. Package Insert Warnings
D. Widespread Uses for Medical Conditions
2.3 Marijuana Research
A. Clinical Trials Primer
2.4 Therapeutic/Medical Use of Marijuana
A. Antiemetic and Appetite Stimulant
B. Decrease in Opiate Craving and Drug Abuse Potential
2.5 Marijuana Toxicities and Risks
A. Physical Effects
B. Tolerance and Physical Dependence—Acute and Chronic Intoxication:
C. Cognitive Deficiencies: Intoxication and Impairment—Temporary or Permanent?
D. Marijuana Abuse and Treatment
2.6 States Which Have Approved Use of Medical Marijuana for Specific Qualifying Medical Conditions
2.7 Conclusion

Chapter 3: Licensing, Regulation, and Enforcement of Medical and Recreational Marijuana Business in Colorado
Jeffrey S. Gard, Esq.
3.1 History of the Colorado Regulatory Scheme
A. Amendment 20 to the Colorado Constitution
B. Primary Caregiver Model
C. The Early Medical Marijuana Dispensaries and the “legal gray area”
D. People vs. Clendenin
E. Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment
3.2. A regulatory structure is created for marijuana businesses
A. State Level Regulation
B. Amendment 64
3.3. Current Marijuana Business Types
A. Licensing qualifications
B. Licensing process
C. Checklists for State and Local Licensure for a Marijuana Business
D. Medical Marijuana Businesses
E. Retail Marijuana Businesses
F. Ancillary Businesses

Chapter 4: Banking and Taxation for the Marijuana Industry
Jim Marty, CPA, ABV, MS and Kyle Walker, MBA
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Lack of Access to Banking
A. Federal Regulation
B. Colorado Department of Revenue Guidance
C. Ancillary Market Services
D. Department of Justice Guidance Memo
E. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network
4.3 The 280E Problem
A. Basis Issues and Other Unintended Consequences
B. The History of 280E
C. Why is Cost of Goods Sold Deductible?
D. Is 280E Constitutional?
E. Conclusion

Chapter 5: Business Regulation and the Enforcement Process for Colorado Marijuana Law
Sean T. McAllister, Esq
5.1 Brief History of the Development of Marijuana Businesses in Colorado
5.2 State and Federal Enforcement Priorities
5.3 General Business Structure
A. Vertical Integration
B. Restrictions on Ownership Interests
C. Contractor/consultant restrictions
D. Change of ownership issues
5.4 State Enforcement Actions
A. State Enforcement of Applicants
B. State Enforcement of Licensees
C. Seriousness of Violation
D. Summary Suspensions
E. Administrative Holds
F. Voluntary Withdrawal Process
G. Destruction of Property
5.5 Conclusion

Chapter 6: Colorado Marijuana Criminal Law and Penalties
Lenny Frieling, Esq.
6.1 Introduction
A. Medical Marijuana.
B. Limited Personal Use
C. Legislative Response
6.2 Sources of State Marijuana Law
A. New Butane Laws Demonstrate Rapid Legal Changes
6.3 General Sentencing Scheme for Marijuana Law Violations
A. Related Offenses

Chapter 7: Federal Controlled Substances Laws and Marijuana
Andres R. Guevara, Esq.
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The Reach Of Federal Jurisdiction—the Long Arm Of The Law
A. The CSA and Marijuana Enforcement
B. The Power of the Commerce Clause
C. Supremacy and Preemption
D. How Colorado Marijuana Laws Survive Preemption
7.3 Federal Marijuana Sentences/charges
A. Federal sentencing generally
B. Marijuana Sentences and Charges Under the Federal System
7.4 Federal Marijuana Reform and Trends

Chapter 8: Driving Under the Influence of Drugs: An Overview of Colorado’s Alcohol and Drug-Related Driving Offenses
Jay M. Tiftickjian, Esq.
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The DUI Statute
8.3 Definitions of Essential Elements
A. “Driving”
B. “Motor Vehicle” and “Vehicle”
C. “Under the Influence”
D. “While Ability Impaired”
E. “Excessive Alcohol Content”
8.4 The “Permissive Inference” for THC
8.5 Prescription Drugs
8.6 Underage Drinking and Driving (UDD)
8.7 The Penalty Statute
8.8 Types of Penalties
A. Incarceration
B. Community Service
C. Probation
D. Alcohol and Drug Evaluation and Treatment Programs
E. Penalty Charts—First-Offenses
F. Penalty Charts—Multiple Offenses
G. Consequences for Driver’s Licenses
H. Habitual Traffic Offender
I. Costs and Restitution
J. Victim’s Rights in Vehicular Assault and Homicide Cases
8.9 Other Offenses Related to DUI and DUID.
A. Careless Driving
B. Reckless Driving
C. Driving Under Restraint
D. Child Abuse
E. Vehicular Assault
F. Vehicular Homicide
8.10 Issues Relevant to Litigating DUID Cases
A. Forced Blood Draws
B. The Drug Recognition Evaluation
C. Forensic Chemical Testing
8.11 Conclusion
8.12 C.R.S. § 42-4-1301
8.13 C.R.S. § 42-4-1307

Chapter 9: Laboratory Testing Overview of THC
Jeremy Brehmer
9.1 Introduction
A. Solid Drug Dose Analysis
B. Forensic Toxicology
9.2 Marijuana Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics of THC
9.3 Urine Sample Collection
A. Sample Handling
B. Transport/Storage
9.4 Blood Collection
A. Blood Transportation
9.5 The Laboratory
A. Quality Control/Quality Assurance
B. Analysts (training/proficiency)
9.6 The Analysis: Methods
A. Screening/presumptive
B. Immunoassay
C. Solid Dose Screening Tests
D. Thin Layer Chromatography Screening Test
E. Modified Duquenois-Levine Color Screening Test
9.7 Confirmatory Testing for THC
A. Urine
B. Confirmatory Analysis of THC-COOH by Gas Chromatography with Mas Spectrometry
9.8 Method validation LOD/LOQ
A. Valid Method for Qualification and Quantification Required before Reporting
9.9 Is there a Correlation Between ng/ml of THC and Impairment?
9.10 Quantitative Analysis in Whole Blood Serum and Plasma
A. Gas Chromatography
B. Mass Spectrometry
C. Electronic Ionization
D. Mass Analyzers
9.11 Qualification and Detectors
A. Total Ion Current/SCAN v. Selective Ion Monitoring (SIM)
B. Quantitation of the THC
9.12 Conclusion
Glossary of Important Analytical Chemistry Terms

Chapter 10: Are THC Concentrations Appropriate For Presuming Psychomotor Impairment?
Paul Armentano
10.1 Overview
10.2 Colorado’s HB 1325
10.3 Are THC Concentrations Accurate Predictors Of Cannabis-Induced Impairment?
10.4 Why Are Presumptive THC Limits Inadvisable for Cannabinoids
10.5 Experienced Cannabis Consumers Exhibit Tolerance To the Drug’s Effects
10.6 Cannabis’ Influence on Psychomotor Performance is Short-Lived
10.7 THC/Blood Collection Seldom Occurs In a Timely Manner
10.8 Conclusion

Chapter 11: Land Use, Real Estate, Landlord/Tenant and HOA Issues
Bill E. Kyriagis, Esq.
11.1 Overview
11.2 Land Use Issues
A. Introduction
B. Land Use Issues for Medical and Recreational Marijuana Businesses
C. Land Use Issues Relating to Individuals’ Medical and Recreational Use of Marijuana
11.3 General Real Estate Issues
A. Restrictions on Open and Public Consumption of Marijuana
B. Private Restrictions on Marijuana Allowed
11.4 Landlord/Tenant Issues
A. Introduction
B. Landlord/Tenant Issues for Medical and Recreational Marijuana Businesses
C. Landlord/Tenant Issues Relating to Individuals’ Medical and Recreational Use of Marijuana
11.5 Homeowners’ Associations and Other Common Interest Ownership Community Issues

Chapter 12: Under the Influence of Marijuana
John P. Bederka, Jr., Ph.D. and Warren Cooper
12.1 Under the Influence: After Smoking
A. Introductory Summary
B. Questions in Search of Answers
C. Scientific Data Relating to THC
D. Conclusions
12.2 Under the Influence: After Ingestion
A. Introductory Summary
B. Some Comparative Data On Smoking and Ingesting Cannabis:
C. Conclusions

Appendix A: Relevant Statutes, Codes, Rules, and Memoranda
Appendix B: Names of Marijuana Strains

About the Contributors


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Medicolegal Aspects of Marijuana, Colorado Edition

Lawyers, pharmacologists, and political activists look at the recent legalization of marijuana in Colorado from such perspectives as a brief history of marijuana legislation in Colorado, banking and taxation for the marijuana industry, business regulation and the enforcement process for Colorado marijuana law, Colorado marijuana criminal law and penalties, federal controlled substances law and marijuana, an overview of Colorado's alcohol and drug-related driving offenses, laboratory testing overview of THC, whether THC concentrations are appropriate for presuming psychomotor impairment, and under the influence of marijuana.

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