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Slips Trips Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition PDF eBook - Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company, Inc.

Slips Trips Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition PDF eBook

$ 99.00

  • Authors: Jon R. Abele, Alvin S. Hyde, H. Harvey Cohen, Cindy A. LaRue, Gary M. Bakken 
  • ISBN 10: 1-933264-01-2
  • ISBN 13: 978-1933264-01-1
  • Copyright Date Ed: April 1, 2006
  • Pages: 375 pages
  • PDF eBook

Falls are the second leading cause of accidental deaths in the United States, but are overlooked in most literature. Of use to primary care physicians, nurses, insurance adjusters, architects, writers of building codes, attorneys, or those who care for the elderly, this book will tell you how, why, and when people will likely fall, what most likely will be injured, and how such injuries come about. It details potential trouble spots, which may cause falls, in buildings, both private and public, and how to prevent or reduce the risk of accidents.

This book answers your questions on how to determine fault and liability between the plaintiff and the defendant in a slip and fall case, applying the traditional premises liability model. The included case studies and examples will help you understand the mechanics and causes of these accidents, and what human factors may be present.

Biomedical factors that increase the likelihood and severity of fall injuries are covered including an extensive chapter on osteoporosis and its relation to falls and fall injury. With the very useful Fall Prevention Manual that is included, you will find potential trouble areas in and around a building before an accident occurs. Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, 2nd Edition is peerless in its handling of an important and overlooked subject.


  • The incidence of accidental falls
  • Classifying falls
  • Standing, walking, the environment and gravity
  • Human factors in falls
  • Environmental factors in falls
  • Aging and central nervous system changes
  • Osteoporosis and other diseases that cause or contribute to falls
  • Medications and iatrogenic causes of falls
  • Building design standards and pedestrian traffic
  • Fall injuries: spine, head, and extremities
  • Preventing falls and injuries
  • Premises liability
  • Defense techniques and suggestions for slip, trip and/or fall cases
  • Fall Prevention Manual and checklist

Table of Contents:

Part One: Forensic Human Factors and Ergonomics and Safety Overview

Chapter 1: Standing, Walking, Environment
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Standing and Swaying
1.3 Walking Cycle
1.4 Environment
1.5 The Senile Gait
1.6 Aging, and the Pathophysiology of "Normal" Central Nervous System Changes

Chapter 2: Walkway Hazards
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Slip Hazard
2.3 Coefficient of Friction
2.4 SCOF: The Tangent of the Angle of the Incline with Respect to the Horizontal
2.5 Traction Demand
2.6 Other Pedestrian Slip Causality Factors
2.7 Footwear
2.8 Ramps or Other Inclined Surfaces
2.9 Slipping During Walking
2.10 Preventing Slips
2.11 Measuring Coefficient of Friction—Equipment
2.12 Measuring Coefficient of Friction—Test Specimens
2.13 Measuring Coefficient of Friction-—Human-Based Approaches
2.14 Slip Hazard Standards and Regulations
2.15 Trip Hazard
2.16 Vertically Oriented Projecting Object Surface
2.17 Projecting Object Location
2.18 Height of the Projecting Object
2.19 Trip Hazard Standards and Regulations
2.20 Misstep Hazard
2.21 Misstep Hazard Change in Elevation
2.22 Misstep Hazard Expectations
2.23 Misstep Hazard Neuromusculoskeletal Response
2.24 Single Step, a Hazardous Condition

Chapter 3: Information Processing
3.1 General
3.2 Detection
3.3 Perception
3.4 Analysis
3.5 Decision Making
3.6 Response
3.7 Action
3.8 Human Error
3.9 Risk Perception
3.10 Risk Information Processing

Chapter 4: How We Fall and Why We Fall
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Fall Types
4.3 Free Falls
4.4 Rotational Falls
4.5 Crumple Falls
4.6 Tumble Falls
4.7 The Fall Event
A. Fall initiation
B. Fall prevention responses
C. Injury prevention or mitigation responses

Chapter 5: Falls and Their Causes: On Who Falls and Who Is Injured
5.1 General
5.2 The Incidence of Accidental Falls
5.3 The Incidence of Accidental Fall Injuries and Deaths
5.4 The Influence of Age on Accidental Falls and the Injuries and Deaths They Cause
5.5 The Influence of Race and Sex on Accidental Falls and the Injuries and Deaths They Cause
5.6 Summary

Chapter 6: On Gravity: A Relentless Force That Would Cast Us to the Ground (How We Detect, Use and Resist the Force of Gravity)
6.1 General
6.2 "G" (The Gravitational Constant) and "g" (The Acceleration Due to the Pull of the Earth’s Gravity)
6.3 Mass Versus Weight
6.4 How We Tell Where We Are Positioned in Earth’s Gravitational Field; (or) Where Is Up and Where Is Down? And How Do We Know This Is So?
6.5 How We Tell Our Position in Space
6.6 How We Continuously Interpret and Modify Our Position in Space
6.7 Generalizations Concerning the Control of Posture and of Movement
6.8 Summary

Chapter 7: Biomedical Factors That Cause Falls: Senescence and Diseases
7.1 Introduction
7.2 General
7.3 Diseases and Changes of Aging That Either Cause Falls or Increase the Chance of Accidentally Falling
A. Peripheral sensors and nerves: their age-related changes and diseases
B. Central nervous system age-related changes and diseases
C. Cardiovascular aging and diseases
D. Musculoskeletal system diseases affecting falling

Chapter 8: Biomedical Factors That Cause Falls: Medications and Iatrogenic Causes
8.1 General
8.2 The Relationship Between Accidental Falls and the Type, Absolute Number, and Amount of Drugs Taken
8.3 The Relationship (if any) Between Age and Adverse Drug Reactions
8.4 What Factors Determine a Drug’s Dose? How Do These Factors Change with Increasing Age?
8.5 Adverse Drug Reactions and Polypharmacy
8.6 Summary

Chapter 9: Environmental Factors That Cause Falls
9.1 General
9.2 Introduction
9.3 Environmental Factors: Ambience, Design Standards, and Pedestrian Traffic
A. Ambience
B. Pedestrian traffic
9.4 Falls at Home and Work
A. General
B. Falls at home
C. Falls at work

Chapter 10: Fall Injury Information
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Fall Incidence
10.3 Death and Death Rates by Age and Sex
10.4 All Deaths Due to Injury
10.5 Unintentional-Injury Deaths by Month and Type


Chapter 11: Stability, Fall and Injury
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Stability
11.3 Fall Definition
11.4 Fall Injuries
11.5 Impact Surfaces

Chapter 12: A Brief View of Osteoporosis: A Biomedical Factor That Makes Fractures from Falling More Probable
12.1 General
12.2 Osteopenia
12.3 Osteoporosis Further Defined and Characterized
12.4 The Rates of Bone Loss in Women and Men with Age
12.5 The Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis
12.6 Summary

Chapter 13: Fall Injuries
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Factors That Determine Response to Falls
A. Fall height and same-level falls
B. Impact direction (position at landing)
C. Protective reflexes for falls
D. Impacted surface material
E. Individual disposition, or, the age, size, sex, and health of fall victims
13.3 The Distribution of Injury Sites Resulting from Same-Level Falls
A. Head injuries from same-level falls
B. Injuries of the spine from falls
C. Fall injuries of the extremities
13.4 Summary


Chapter 14: Premises Liability-
14.1 Preparing a Slip, Trip, or Misstep and Fall Case
14.2 Duty Owed
14.3 Classification of Plaintiff as Trespasser
14.4 Duty Owed to Licensee
14.5 Duty Owed to Invitee
14.6 Potential Defendants
14.7 Breach of Duty
14.8 Violation of Statute
14.9 Notice of Dangerous Condition
14.10 Actual Notice
14.11 Plaintiff’s Attention Diverted
14.12 Constructive Notice
14.13 Activities on Premises
14.14 Illumination
14.15 Proximate Cause
14.16 Actions by Third Parties
14.17 Self-Service Activities
14.18 Damages
14.19 Enhancement Factors

Chapter 15: Defenses in a Slip, Trip, or Misstep and Fall Case
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Not Proper Party Defendant
15.3 No Duty Owed to Plaintiff
15.4 No Prior Accidents
15.5 Knowledge of Observable Dangers
15.6 Snow and Ice
15.7 No Breach of Duty
15.8 Proximate Cause
15.9 Trivial Defect
15.10 Static Condition
15.11 Failure to Prove Cause of Accident
15.12 Damages
15.13 Affirmative Defenses
A. Assumption of the risk
B. Comparative fault/contributory negligence
15.14 Case Preparation
A. Witnesses
B. Expert witnesses

Chapter 16: Slip and Fall Fact Circumstances
16.1 Slip in Parking Lot
16.2 Slip on Spilled Drink
16.3 Slip on Ramp
16.4 Fall on Stairs
16.5 Slip in Shower
16.6 Absorbent Floor Mats
16.7 Slip on Packing Band
16.8 Slip on Hardwood Floor
16.9 Hazard Created by Other Customer
16.10 Self-Service Activity

Chapter 17: Table of Cases
Sample Deposition Slip and Fall Case


Chapter 18: Level Surfaces
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Common Walkway Surfaces
A. Natural stone
B. Terrazzo
C. Tile
D. Carpeting and wood flooring
E. Bathing surfaces and showers
F. Sidewalks and concrete flooring

Chapter 19: Stairways and Handrails
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Stairway Definitions
19.3 High-Risk Stairs
19.4 Step Geometry
19.5 Winder, Circular, and Spiral Stairs
19.6 Single steps
19.7 Stair Landings
19.8 Handrails
19.9 Human Factors in Using Stairs
19.10 Staircase Fall Patterns
19.11 Summary

Chapter 20: Ramps
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Ramp Requirements
20.3 Fall Patterns on Ramps

Chapter 21: Ladders
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Ladder Types
A. Portable wood ladders
B. Portable metal ladders
C. Fixed ladders
21.3 Common Ladder Fall Patterns
21.4 Ladder Hazard Warnings
21.5 Safe Ladder Use
A. Ladder placement
B. Ascending or descending ladders
C. Other recommended practices
21.6 Electrical Hazards and Metal Ladders
21.7 Ladder Inspection and Maintenance
21.8 Ladder Storage

Chapter 22: Vehicle Ingress and Egress
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Car Haulers
22.3 Cab-Over-Engine Tractors
22.4 Conventional Tractors
22.5 General Trailers
22.6 Conclusions and Recommendations

Chapter 23: Elevated Walking and Working Surfaces
23.1 Introduction
23.2 The Hazard
23.3 Hazard Exposure
23.4 Utility Value
23.5 Risk of Injury
23.6 Hazard Awareness and Exposure Magnitude
23.7 Hazard Avoidance
23.8 Laws, Codes, Standards, and References

Chapter 24: Elevators and Escalators
24.1 Introduction
24.2 The Hazards
24.3 Hazard Exposure
24.4 Utility Value
24.5 Risk of Injury
24.6 Hazard Awareness and Exposure Magnitude
24.7 Hazard Avoidance
24.8 Laws, Codes, Standards, and References

Chapter 25: Skylights
25.1 Introduction
25.2 The Hazard
25.3 Hazard Exposure
25.4 Utility Value
25.5 Risk of Injury
25.6 Hazard Awareness and Exposure Magnitude
25.7 Hazard Avoidance
25.8 Laws, Codes, Standards, and References

Chapter 26: Warnings for Safe Pedestrian Use
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Scope of the Problem
26.3 Perceptual-Cognitive Factors in Warning Adequacy and Effectiveness
A. Unexpected impediment in a level walking surface
B. Unexpected change in level
C. Unexpected change in traction
26.4 Stairways
A. Unexpected variation in step geometry
B. Marking of handrails
C. Marking of stair treads
26.5 Ramps
26.6 Sidewalks
26.7 Driveways and Parking Lots
26.8 Curbs in Parking Garages
26.9 Pathways Through Landscaped Areas
26.10 Walkways in and Around Residences
26.11 Aisles in and Around Commercial Establishments
26.12 Other Elevated Walkway or Working Surfaces
26.13 Conclusions 


The Fall Prevention Manual

Appendix A: Friction and Slipperiness

Appendix B: Lighting

Appendix C: Walking Kinematics and Biomechanics: How Falls Occur

Appendix D: Perception: Why Don’t We See What Is There?

Appendix E: Common Fall Incident Patterns

Appendix F: Preventive Actions

Appendix G: Premises Fall Incident Investigation

Appendix H: References and Bibliography for Codes, Standards and Guidelines

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